Is it possible to improve the weighting function for lightness in the CIEDE2000 color-difference formula?
Keywords:Color difference, Color-difference formula, CIE94, CIEDE2000, Whittle formula
We have compared the performance of the CIEDE2000 color-difference formula (?E00) with three CIEDE2000-modified formulas: 1) ?E00_M1, which incorporates a new V-shaped function proposed at the University of Leeds (UK) with a minimum at the specific lightness of the background; 2) ?E00_M2, a formula where the original SL function in ?E00 was replaced by SL=1, as proposed by the CIE94 color-difference formula; 3) ?E00_M3, a formula developed by us, with the same structure than ?E00, but avoiding its original SL function by replacing the lightness differences in CIELAB by a new lightness definition based on Whittle formula. Our comparison used the STRESS index and thirteen visual datasets (CIE 217:2016), including filtered subsets to test the symmetry of the SL function proposed by ?E00. None of the three mentioned CIEDE2000-modified formulas performed statistically significantly better than the original ?E00 formula for any of the mentioned datasets or subsets, with only one exception (?E00_M2 formula, Witt dataset). Therefore, the replacement of the SL function in ?E00 by SL=1 is not recommended. ?E00_M1 and ?E00_M3 improved ?E00 for most datasets, but such improvements were not statistically significant. Results for color pairs with average L* values below and above 50 were not statistically significant different for neither ?E00, ?E00_M2 and ?E00_M3 formulas. It is interesting to note that for eight of the thirteen visual datasets there were no color pairs with average L* values below 25, which claims for future studies using darker color pairs.
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