Under the lens of ISLe: Leonardo da Vinci’s "Landscape" drawing analysed by colourimetry
On the occasion of the fifth centenary of his death, the Museo Leonardiano da Vinci celebrates its anniversary with the exhibition "Leonardo a Vinci. At the Origins of the Genius" which includes the exhibition of the drawing of Landscape, dated August 5, 1473, kept at the GDSU of the Uffizi Galleries in Florence. The University of Bologna has been asked to make a 3D rendering of the drawing that could be used as a substitute, capable of investigating, describing and communicating the drawing, its methods and contents, faithfully reproducing its form, characters and appearance. The answer was the ISLe application, a means of observing and understanding, interpreting and envisioning drawings and therefore able to penetrate the secrets of Leonardo's Landscape. Technically, ISLe aims to provide a unified answer to two distinct and complementary questions: the first is the creation of drawing archives that can accurately describe the information of the original analogical physical system; the second is related to the methods for the collection and rendering of 3D drawings, i.e those systems and techniques that allow for the reproduction and systematically show a perception of the form three-dimensionally thus creating a visual evaluation of the current state of conservation of the drawing, of the superimposed sedimentation and of any restorations received over time. This paper describes the experience and results.
Apollonio, F. I., Clini, P., Gaiani, and M., Perissa Torrini, A. (2015) ‘La terza dimensione dell’Uomo vitruviano di Leonardo’, Disegnare Idee Immagini, 50, pp. 48-59.
Arthur, D. and Vassilvitskii S. (2007) ‘k-means++: The Advantages of Careful Seeding’, in Proceedings of the Eighteenth Annual ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms, pp. 1027-1035.
Berns, R. S., Taplin, L. A., Nezamabadi, M., Zhao, Y., and Okumura, Y. (2005) ‘High-Accuracy Digital Imaging of Cultural Heritage without Visual Editing’, in Proceedings of IS&T Archiving Conference, pp. 91-95.
Burns P.D. (2000) ‘Slanted Edge MTF for Digital Camera and Scanner Analysis’, in Proceedings of IS&T PICS Conference, pp. 135-138.
Gaiani, M., Corsi, C., Faietti, M., Rossi, I., and Zancolich, M. (2011) ‘An unified, fast and low cost workflow for fine art drawing collections acquisition’, in Rossi M. (ed.), Colour and Colorimetry Multidisciplinay Contributions, VIIB, pp. 45-52.
Gaiani, M. Ricci, P. C., and Zancolich, M. (2012) ‘Una metodologia low- cost per l’analisi tramite metodi 3D di disegni antichi mantenendo la consistenza del colore’, in Rossi M., Siniscalco, A., (eds.), Colore e Colorimetria - Contributi Multidisciplinari, VIIIA, pp. 15-22.
Gaiani, M., Apollonio, F. I. and Clini, P. (2015) ‘Innovative approach to the digital documentation and rendering of the total appearance of fine drawings and its validation on Leonardo’s Vitruvian Man’, Journal of Cultural Heritage, 16 (6), pp. 805-812. doi: 10.1016/j.culher.2015.04.003.
Gaiani, M., Apollonio, F. I., Ballabeni, A. and Remondino, F. (2017) ‘Securing Color Fidelity in 3D Architectural Heritage Scenarios’, Sensors, 17 (11), pp. 2437-1 2437-24. doi: 10.3390/s17112437.
Gaiani, M. and Ballabeni, A. (2018) ‘SHAFT (SAT & HUE Adaptive Fine Tuning), a new automated solution for target-based color correction’, in Marchiafava, V. and Luzzatto L. (eds.), Colour and Colorimetry Multidisciplinay Contributions, XIVB, pp. 69-80.
Hao, Y., Liu, H., Chen, Y., Jiao, A., and Zheng N. (2011) ‘Research on Digital Image’s Color-Difference Threshold under Different Lighting Levels’, in Proceedings of 4th International Congress on Image and Signal Processing, pp. 1723-1727.
ISO (2017) 12233:2017 Photography - Electronic still picture imaging - Resolution and spatial frequency responses.
ISO (2009) 3664:2009 Graphic technology and photography - Viewing conditions.
Jacobson R. E. (1995) ‘An Evaluation of Image Quality Metrics’, The Journal of Photographic Science, 43, pp. 7-16. doi: 10.1080/00223638.1995.11738604.
Lukac, R. and Plataniotis, K.N. (2007) ‘Single-Sensor Camera Image Processing’, in Lukac, R. and Plataniotis, K.N. (eds.) Color Image Processing - Methods and Applications, CRC Press, pp. 363–392.
MacDonald L. (2010), ‘The limits of resolution’, in Proceedings of BCS EVA Conference, pp.149-156.
Malzbender, T., Gelb, D., and Wolters, H. (2001) ‘Polynomial texture maps’, in ACM SIGGRAPH ’01 Proceedings. ACM press, pp. 519-528.
McCamy, C.S., Marcus, H. and Davidson J. G. (1976) ‘A Color Rendition Chart’, Journal of Applied Photographic Engineering, 11 (3), pp. 95-99.
Nova, A. (2015). ‘«Addj 5 daghossto 1473»: l’oggetto e le sue interpretazioni’, in Frosini, F. and Nova A. (eds), Leonardo da Vinci on Nature. Knowledge and Representation. Venezia: Marsilio, pp. 285-301.
Paris, S., Kornprobst, P., Tumblin, J. and Durand, F. (2009) ‘Bilateral Filtering: Theory and Applications, ‘Foundations and Trends in Computer Graphics and Vision’, 4 (1), pp. 1-73. doi: 10.1561/0600000020.
Ridler, T. W. and Calvard, S. (1978) ‘Picture thresholding using an iterative selection method’, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 8(8), pp. 630-632. doi: 10.1109/TSMC.1978.4310039.
Salvador L. (2009) ‘Tecniche, stato conservativo e intervento di restauro’, in Perissa Torrini A. (ed.), Leonardo L’uomo vituviano fra arte e scienza. Venezia: Marsilio, pp. 57-67.
Sharma, G., Wu, W., and Dalal, E. N. (2005) ‘The CIEDE2000 Color- Difference Formula: Implementation Notes, Supplementary Test Data, and Mathematical Observation’, Color Research and Application, 30 (1), pp. 21-30. doi: 10.1002/col.20070.
Trumpy, G. (2010) ‘Digital Reproduction of Small Gamut Objects: A Profiling Procedure based on Custom Color Targets’, in Proceedings of Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision, 1, pp. 143-147.
Wilkie, A., Weidlich, A., Magnor, M., and Chalmers, A., (2009). ‘Predictive Rendering’, in ACM SIGGRAPH ASIA 2009 Courses, Article 12, 428 p.
Williams, D. and Burns, P.D. (2008) ‘Measuring and Managing Digital Image Sharpening’, in Proceedings of IS&T Archiving 2008 Conference, pp. 89-93.
Williams, D. and Burns, P. D. (2012) ‘Targeting for Important Color Content: Near Neutrals and Pastels’, in Proceedings of IS&T Archiving 2012 Conference, pp. 190-194.
Williams, D. and Burns, P. D. (2016a) ‘Rethinking Image Color Correction, Validation and Testing,’ in Proceedings of IS&T Archiving 2006 Conference, pp.175-180.
Williams, D. and Burns, P. D. (2016b) ‘Color Correction Meets Blind Validation for Image Capture: Are We Teaching to the Test?’, in Proceedings of IS&T International Symposium on Electronic Imaging, pp. 218.1-218.4
Copyright (c) 2014 Cultura e Scienza del Colore - Color Culture and Science
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The "Cultura e Scienza del Colore - Color Culture and Science" journal is registered at the Court of Milan at n.233 of 24.06.2014.
The journal is an open access journal, free for readers and authors and has joined ROAD, the Directory of Open Access scholarly Resources, since 2014. Articles published in the “Cultura e Scienza del Colore - Color Culture and Science" journal are open access articles, distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The copyright is retained by the author(s).