Does gender have an impact on the color preferences in fashion products?
This paper is part of a project that aims to identify consumers' color preferences in fashion products. The results presented in this work are part of a survey developed in 2019. In fashion products, colors are responsible for adding value through emotional and aesthetic aspects, these preferences being essential points to build a marketable and attractive product. However, through history and cultures, it was noticed that certain colors, when applied to clothes, were positively seen in a society when worn only by men and others only by women. Thus, this paper aims to identify how color preferences in fashion products change as the differences between genders are observed. The survey was conducted with 252 volunteers, 176 of whom were female, and 76 were male respondents; the results were analyzed using the IBM SPSS. As a result, a greater focus on the female gender in pinks and lilaceous hue was understood, while a lower preference for greenish hues. As for the male gender, the preferred hues were bluish, while the least preferred were pinks and lilaceous. It was concluded that genders play a certain role in color preferences in fashion products, identifying socially constructed characteristics through the history of colors as being responsible for those tendencies. It was possible to corroborate the social notion of the female gender preferring pinks hues and the masculine gender presenting tendencies of preferences to the bluish ones and a high refusal to the pinks and lilaceous – seen as women colors.
Altıntaş, N., and Ağaç, S. (2008). Ready-to-wear industries and forecasting [In Turkish]. E-Journal of New World Sciences Academy Vocational Education, 4, 10-20.
Baxter, M. (2011). Projeto de produto: guia prático para o design de novos produtos. 3th ed. São Paulo, BR: Blucher.
Ben-Zeev, A., and Dennehy, T. C. (2014). When boys wear pink: A gendered color cue violation evokes risk taking. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 15(4), 486–489.
Bonnardel, V., Beniwal, S., Dubey, N., and Pande, M. (2018). Gender difference in color preference across cultures: An archetypal pattern modulated by a female cultural stereotype. Color Research and Application, 43(2), pp. 209-233.
Burkitt, E., Barrett, M., and Davis, A. (2003). Children's color choices for completing drawings of affectively characterized topics. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry, 44, 445–455.
Dantas, Ítalo J. M., Alves, H. M. F., Nascimento, M. N., Freire, A. G. and Solino, L. J. S. (2020) Chromatic preferences in group of hues through fashion products in the Seridó region of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Research, Society and Development, 9(8), e923986185.
Ellis, L., and Ficek, C. (2001). Color preferences according to gender and sexual orientation. Personality and Individual Differences, 31(8), pp. 1375-1379.
Eysenck HJ. (1941). A critical and experimental study of colour preferences. Am. J. Psychol., 54(3), pp. 385-394.
Farina, M.; Bastos, D., and Perez, C. (2006). Psicodinâmica das cores em comunicação. São Paulo: Edgar Blucher,
Fortamann-Roe, S. (2011). Effects of Hue, Saturation, and Brightness on Color Preference in Social Networks: Gender-Based Color Preference on the Social Networking Site Twitter. Color Research and Application, 38 (3), pp. 196-202.
Fowler, F. J. (2014) Survey Research Methods. California: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Gil, A. C. (2008). Métodos e técnicas de pesquisa social. 6th ed. São Paulo, BR: Atlas.
He W., Zhang Y. C., Zhu J. P., et al. (2011). Could sex difference in color preference and its personality correlates fit into social theories? Let Chinese university students tell you. Pers. Individ. Differ., 51(2), pp. 154-159.
Heller, E. (2012). A Psicologia das Cores: como as cores afetam a emoção e a razão. São Paulo, BR: Gustavo Gili.
Holtzschue, L. (2011). Understanding color: an introduction for designers. New Jersey, US: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Hurlbert, A. C., & Ling, Y. L. (2007). Biological components of sex differences in color preference. Current Biology, 17, 623–625.
Ishii, K., Numazaki, M., Tado'oka, Y. (2019). The Effect of Pink/Blue Clothing on Implicit and Explicit Gender-Related Self-Cognition and Attitudes Among Men. Japanese Psychological Research, 61(2), pp. 123-132.
Jones, S.J. (2005), Fashion design – manual do estilista. São Paulo, BR: Cosac Naify.
Kilinç, N. (2011). Clothing Color Preferences of Boys and Girls Aged Between Six and Nine. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 39(10), pp. 1359-1366.
Ling Y, Hurlbert A, Robinson L. (2006). Sex differences in colour preference. Prog. Colour Studies, 2, pp. 173-188.
Löbach, B. (2001). Design industrial: bases para a configuração dos produtos industriais. São Paulo, Brazil: Edgard Blucher.
LoBue, V., and DeLoache, J. (2011). Pretty in pink: The early development of gender-stereotyped colour preferences. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 29(3), pp. 659-667.
Luo D., Yu L., Westland S., and Mahon N. (2019). The influence of colour and image on consumer purchase intentions of convenience food. Journal of the International Colour Association, 24, pp. 11-23.
Pina, L. M. G. (2009). A cor e a moda: a função da cor como suporte para o design de moda e personalidade dentro de um público jovem. Master thesis. Beira Interior University. Available at: http://hdl.handle.net/10400.6/1671 (Accessed 10 July 2020).
Rathee R., Rajain, P. (2019), Role colour plays in influencing consumer behaviour. International Research Journal of Business Studies, 12(3), pp. 209-222.
Regan, B. C., Julliot, C., Simmen, B., Vienot, F., Charles-Dominique, P., & Mollon, J. D. (2001). Fruits, foliage and the evolution of primate color vision. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London B, 356, 229–283.
Schwinn, S. A., and Funck, L. E. (2019). "Meninos vestem azul, meninas vestem rosa": como os estereótipos de gênero podem contribuir com a manutenção da desigualdade entre mulheres e homens. Seminário Internacional Demandas Sociais e Políticas Públicas na Sociedade Contemporânea, 16(1), pp. 1-16.
Sherin, A. (2012), Design elements: color fundamentals. Massachusetts, US: Rockport Publishers.
Silva, C. A. P. and Mazzilli, C. T. S. (2020) Does chromatic lightness have an impact on the perceived odor of Brazilian perfumes? Color Culture and Science Journal, 12(1), pp. 63-74.
Silva, C. A. P. (2017) As cores e as formas dos cheiros: as correspondências entre os sentidos do olfato e da visão em frascos de perfumes, PhD dissertation, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo.
Silverman, I., Choi, J. and Peters, M. (2007). The Hunter-Gatherer Theory of Sex Differences in Spatial Abilities: Data from 40 Countries. Arch Sex Behav, 36, pp. 261–268.
Singh, S. (2006). Impact of Color on Marketing. Management Decision, 44(6), pp.783-789.
Taylor C, Clifford A, Franklin A. (2013). Color preferences are not universal. J. Exp. Psychol. Gen., 142(4), pp. 1015-1027.
Treptow, D. E. (2013). Inventando Moda: planejamento de coleção. São Paulo, BR: author’s edition.
Yu, L., Westland, S., and Li, Z. (2020), analysis of experiments to determine individual colour preference. Color Research and Application, early view, pp. 1-13.
Yu L, Westland S, Li Z, Pan Q, Shin MJ, and Won S. (2018). The role of individual colour preferences in consumer purchase decisions. Color Research and Application, 43(2), pp. 258-267.
Yu L, Westland S, and Liu X. (2017). Gender and cultural effects on consumer colour purchase decisions. Proceedings of 13th AIC Congress 2017, Leeds.
Zhang, J. (2013). The Application of Color Psychological Effect on Fashion Design. Advanced Materials Research, 796, pp. 474-478.
Zhang, Y., Liu, P., Han, B., Xiang, Y., and Li, L. (2019). Hue, chroma, and lightness preference in Chinese adults: Age and gender differences. Color Research and Application, 44, pp. 967-980.
Copyright (c) 2021 Cultura e Scienza del Colore - Color Culture and Science
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The "Cultura e Scienza del Colore - Color Culture and Science" journal is registered at the Court of Milan at n.233 of 24.06.2014.
The journal is an open access journal, free for readers and authors and has joined ROAD, the Directory of Open Access scholarly Resources, since 2014. Articles published in the “Cultura e Scienza del Colore - Color Culture and Science" journal are open access articles, distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The copyright is retained by the author(s).